This essay focuses on the problem of social conflicts, resource distribution and social justice in Nigeria. Social conflicts in Nigeria have assumed life threatening dimensions, leading to armed conflict, extensive human suffering, social instability and insecurity. These conflicts which have beset the country since its independence, have led to the vitiation of its potential for development. More importantly, the problem of social conflicts in Nigeria, which is multi-dimensional and life-threatening has on various occasions threatened to cause the total collapse of the state and the dissolution of society. This multifaceted crisis has indeed put the question of the survival of Nigeria on the center stage. The essay adopts the analytical, conceptual and empirical account procedures or methods in achieving its goal. It seeks to provide a sharper definition of the problematic and more importantly, to outline the major research perspectives available on the issue. To this effect, the work moves beyond earlier accounts in some important ways. Not only does it view the problem of social conflicts in Nigeria from a holistic perspective, but it also shows in a systematic manner the links between the various dimensions of the conflict in the country. Earlier contributions seem to have largely focused on a taxonomic and restrictive analysis of the problem, leading to the potential for a less comprehensive and systematic account of the fundamental causes and manifestations of social conflicts in Nigeria. This shortcoming has compelled a more careful theoretical analysis of the problem of social conflicts in Nigeria, with special reference to the crisis of social order and the problem of resource management in Nigeria. This essay highlights the need for fundamental social reconstruction, based on the full articulation of those crucial concepts necessary for establishing a truly humane, civil and harmonious society. Hence, it focuses on the redefinition of the meanings of social order, social justice, and national security. It examines the context of social justice in Nigeria and the paths to the reconciliation and restoration of social order and national integration. Its major contribution lies in the explicit quest for more viable and enduring rules and systems that would ensure the sustenance of human dignity, peace and harmony.