After the outbreak of Xinhai revolution, on 1 December 1911, the Mongols declared its independence in Ikh Khüree and organized the new government which elevated Bogd Javzandamba khutagt as Khaan; while the emperor of Qing Dynasty abdicated from the throne and Yuan ShiKai came to power as the provisional president of the Republic of China. As Bogd Khaan’s government’s aim was to unify not only Outer Mongolia but Inner Mongolia, it bade the zasags of Inner Mongolia to submit, moreover carried out a military campaign to Inner Mongolia. Yuan ShiKai also planned to succeed the territory of Qing Dynasty and attempted to abolish the declaration of Mongolian independence. So Inner Mongolia became a hotly disputed region.
Under these conditions, a structure, existing two zasags side by side in a banner, appeared. I denominate this structure “Diarchical system” temporarily. It means two situations; the first is the situation that two zasags were appointed by each government, Bogd khaan’s and Yuan ShiKai’s, the other is Bogd khaan’s government appointed two zasags in a banner.
In autumn 1912, Tümen-ölzii, the taij of the Left wing banner of Jaruud, raised a riot and captured Rinchinnoirov, the zasag of the Left wing banner of Jaruud and the vice-chief of Zuu-ud league as a betrayer to Yuan ShiKai. Tümen-ölzii deprived of the Rinchinnoirov’s seal of zasag, moreover occupied Kailu town temporarily. The background of this riot was the conflict between the Mongols and the Chinese, which caused the cultivation by the Chinese farmer to Mongolian pastureland. In addition, there was the conflict between Tümen-ölzii and zasag Rinchinnoirov. These two conflicts were very complicated. The zasag formed the economical relationship with the Chinese; on the other hand the Mongols lost their living space.
In Khishigten banner, Rolgorjav, who submitted to the Bogd Khaan’s government earlier than Bekhzaya, the zasag of his banner, blamed Bekhzaya for concealing the fact of Mongolian independence. In addition, Rolgorjav accused Bekhzaya of succession to the post of zasag by dishonest means. So there was the conflict between Rolgorjav and Bekhzaya.
The Xinhai revolution was the trigger to form the Diarchical system. However, the origin was the conflicts in these banners and these conflicts were
embodied as Diarchical system. The existence of two zasags in a banner implies
the condition that each governments have not been able to control the banner completely. In addition, the fact Bogd khaan’s government could appoint two zasags in a banner implicates the structure of that banner. Namely there were social organizations like nutug working practically under the banner.
I think the study of the Diarchical system can provide the lead to resolve the political structure in Inner Mongolia of those days.